Release management, part 3: Supporting and scaling idempotent, isolated, and parallel jobs in Jenkins build pipeline with Docker

This blog post aims to illustrate how Docker is introduced into an existing Jenkins build pipeline for the purpose of performing test automation in parallel whilst guaranteeing isolated and idempotent environments that are scalable.


In short, this is a truly exciting example of real world devops tool chaining with Docker as part of a build pipeline. Needlessly to say, by incorporating Docker into our build pipeline, it has has trimmed at least 70% of the build pipeline completion time by enabling lockless and parallel job execution. Since each jobs can run in parallel with Docker guaranteeing an isolated, idempotent environment for test automation, scaling out the build pipeline would be as simple as adding more Jenkins slaves. With clever use of Docker, Vagrant, Git and Jenkins together, this kind of tool chaining provides Platform as a Service (PaaS) that empowers both developers and operations alike, a shining example of devops.

In the first part of the Release Management blog series, the design of the build pipeline was conceived and outlined. Verification of the build pipeline design was covered in part two of the series. Permeating throughout this series is testability and automation. In addressing the correctness of test results and outcomes, the test execution environment must be isolated and test execution idempotent.

Guaranteeing an idempotent and isolated job execution

Ensuring a clean slate and running on a controlled environment when executing tests is paramount to the correctness of the test results. The first blog post discussed Vagrant as the tool for creating VMs, then running said tests on these VMs. Each job would perform vagrant up with a number of vagrant ssh command with specific -c parameter, then vagrant destroy for tear down. These commands guaranteed an idempotent and an isolated environment for each test execution in a Jenkins job. However there was a catch. The command, vagrant up, cannot be executed in parallel. See this discussion. This meant jobs that utilised Vagrant must be specified as a protected resource, accessible by one job, one slave at a time. This locking mechanism is supported by the Concurrent Throttle Builds Jenkins plugin, where jobs will wait and queue for certain resource to be freed before execution. The kicker is that this plugin is broken since October 2013 for Jenkins 1.536 and Concurrent Throttle 1.8. See Jenkins issue #19986 and #20211. Suffice to say, as of October last year, the build pipeline ran on a single Jenkins executor, taking a full hour to complete one pipeline build.

Speeding up and scaling out with parallel job execution

Whilst Vagrant definitely offers isolated and idempotent environments, at the time of writing, firing up parallel Vagrant boxes with VirtualBox was buggy at best. It is later confirmed that VirtualBox as a provider does not support parallel provisioning in Vagrant. Naturally if AWS was utilised as a Vagrant provider, this would be non-issue. Alas, it was not the case.

Secondly, provisioning each box takes a long time. Vagrant startup time are in minutes and increases significantly when compounded by copious amounts of apt-get or yum installs during provisioning. Although this can be mitigated by having pre-built Vagrant boxes with all dependencies installed, but it does become an added maintenance task.

The solution here is Docker. Unlike Vagrant, Docker creates lightweight containers, akin to LXC. Each containers can be pulled and pushed. This is similar to the Git model, with offering a centralised repository of all Docker images. With the recent Docker 1.0 release, it is ready for prime time and production usage. Indeed, using Docker is quick and easy. Create the necessary Dockerfile with the same provisioning steps as Vagrantfile is a breeze. When the same user as the Jenkins slave is included in the Dockerfile, upon successfully building the image, the Jenkins slave can then mount any directory onto this container and have the same user as Jenkins slave writing to that mounted directory from the container. This is central for reporting back test results.

Docker images, which act as a baseline for a container, provides an idempotent and isolated environment with the major benefit of being able to run containers in parallel, even if they are based on the same image.

Vagrant vs Docker – a moot comparison

The biggest question is does Docker completely replace Vagrant? The answer is a very clear no. Vagrant is extremely useful during development, essentially giving developers the ability to run as many varied platforms as possible. Docker is a container, an isolated kernel namespace running on top of the a shared Linux kernel. The difference is minute, but depending on the testing requirements, when VMs are required, Vagrant is still a valid choice over Docker.

Platform as a service with Git, Jenkins, Docker and Vagrant! Devops to the rescue

Having Vagrantfile and Dockerfile in their own repo is clever. With Git and Jenkins, provisioning updated sets of Vagrant boxes or Docker containers from Vagrantfile and Dockerfile respectively is easy and will give you the ability to track changes in these VMs and containers. When changes are detected, Vagrant boxes can be rebuilt and list of available boxes updated. Likewise, Docker containers can be rebuilt and pushed as the latest tag. This will both enable and empower the development team to maintain their own production VMs and containers for development, testing and releases. This is PaaS with liberal sprinkling of devops goodness.


Selenium & Vagrant: Headless Chrome in the same old 2 steps

This is the second instalment of the Selenium guide to end all Selenium guides.

Selenium has a bad rep for being difficult to setup. With a little Vagrant know-how, this guide will lower the bar for good. The previous blog post illustrated how to seamlessly set up Firefox headless, Xvfb, and Selenium 2.42.1 grid & node using Vagrant. Boom, now we got headless Chrome in the same old two steps. Init.d script included as usual.

The following steps are:

1. git clone this repo
2. Vagrant up selenium and point your test to the port forwarded default hub location.

The awesome sauce continues.

Selenium & Vagrant: Setting up Selenium grid and node, and headless Firefox in 2 steps

This is the Selenium guide to end all Selenium guides.

2 steps is all you need to fire up a potentially production-ready Selenium 2.42.1 grid and node for your test automation awesome sauce. The Vagrantfile in question will install and setup Firefox headless on a precise64 box. Yes, init.d script is included for both Xvfb, Selenium grid and node respectively. Good times!

The following steps are:

1. git clone this repo
2. Vagrant up selenium and point your test to the port forwarded default hub location.


Release management, part2: Designing scalable and testable build pipelines with BPMN and Jenkins Job Builder

This blog post aims to illustrate the process of designing build pipelines with Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) that is both scalable and testable. The central premise of this blog post is that Jenkins build pipelines are business processes and BPMN closely aligns with Jenkins and its plugin ecosystem. For example, with some clever use of Jenkins plugin, gateways and swimlanes in BPMN can be supported and realised. In the context of release management, Jenkins provides the executable platform for business processes, which benefit tremendously from automation.

In addition, scaling, testing, version controlling and deploying BPMN build pipelines as Jenkins jobs can be achieved through adopting Jenkins API, Git, and Jenkins Job Builder. All Jenkins jobs in the pipeline are written and templated in YAML and deployed via Git (say via an update-hook) when changes are detected. This significantly sped up the process of implementing and stringing together complex Jenkins jobs. This approach allows for early pipeline verification and ultimately enable devops teams to utilise Jenkins a lot more efficiently with greater freedom and control over their own build pipelines.

A quick BPMN primer

Designing build pipelines for release management is akin to doing any other business process modeling. BPMN offers a rich set of visual language to kick start this process. An example of BPMN is as below. See or for more information. Figure below is from the first link as outlined.

BPMN with joins and forks

BPMN with joins and forks

Nodes in BPMN represent events, activities and gates. The edges represent the relationship and the flow. This is fairly simple and offers a rich set of modeling tool to capture a complete business process. In addition, swimlanes represent multiple parallel flows. There is a strong similarity between UML activity diagrams.

Events are the active objects and they captures the start, end and intermediate events (such as timer events). Activities are split into tasks or subprocesses. They are user defined. Finally, gates are predefined set of logical operators designed to control the flow of the tasks. For example, exclusive, parallel, inclusive gateway and etc.

Designing your own build pipelines

In the context of release management, build pipeline refers to a series of test automation, compilation and deployment. These are tasks that are carried out prior to making the product available to the intended audience.

In the previous blog post in the series,, test automation made up of the bulk of the release management process in the start. Each test oriented join job triggered multiple parallel downstream jobs. Only upon successful completion of all downstream jobs can the join job proceed to the next. This is modeled by the parallel gateway, which are used to defined forking and joining points in BPMN as below.

Forked unit testing  jobs

Forked unit testing jobs

Jenkins and plugins

While the previous blog post in the series outline the required plugin. No real explanations were given as to why and when to utilise them. There are a couple of key plugins that enables forking and joining, and the locking of common resources; join trigger plugin and throttle concurrent build plugin respectively. For example, the use of join trigger plugin is key to implementing parallel gates.

Once the plugin is installed, using it is as easy as accessing the usual Jenkins UI. The join plugin wiki page contains all the detailed information.

For more information on the throttle plugin, see

Roll out your build pipelines with Jenkins UI? NO!!

Armed with Jenkins and a complete pipeline design in BPMN, one is ready to start defining Jenkins job in the UI. However, avoiding the UI all together is strongly recommended at this stage. The reason is that despite the convenience supplemented by Jenkins UI, fiddling around with it s both time consuming and error prone. It is most certainly not scalable if you have multiple people working on the same build pipeline model working in a clunky UI environment.

One solution to the problem is to use Jenkins API and define all jobs in XML. However, arguably it is just as clumsy and error prone. The XML model supported by Jenkins maps to its very own internal object models. To utilise it fully one would require a complete understanding of the underpinning relational model used by Jenkins.

Roll out your build pipelines with Git, and Jenkins Job Builder? Yes!

As with all things in software development life cycle, release management processes need to be repeatable, scalable and resilient. The following are the non-functional requirements for the build pipeline.

  • Testability and debugging support on non-production Jenkins setup
  • Tracking changes and rollback
  • Scalability

Enter Jenkins Job Builder. Jenkins Job Builder is a fantastic tool for writing Jenkins job. The supported format is YAML and is human readable. Further more, templating is supported, which translates to common job definitions and job reuse. For example, you could roll out multiple build pipelines based on branches of the source code. Ultimately, you can very easily setup a personalised build pipeline for each developer and their own personal branch with the same set of job templates. The power of Jenkins Job Builder is astounding as it supports a myriad of Jenkins plugin. Moving away from a UI to a text file oriented way of interacting with Jenkins means productivity increases dramatically and that build pipeline skeleton can be tested.

Coupled with Vagrant, using Jenkin Job Builder allows for the same set of Jenkins jobs to be deployed on any Jenkins server. The implication is that in theory debugging Jenkin related issues or test failures can be easily provisioned and reproduced in a VM. This means that anybody on the team can fire up a fully fledged release management platform with almost all the production trimmings. See previous blog entry for the Vagrantfile that is capable of provisioning the exact Jenkins master node required for building and testing the packages. For more information on Jenkins Job Builder, see

Last but not least, integrating Jenkins Job Builder with Git via the update-hook mechanism would enable automated deployment of newly pushed YAML to production Jenkins. Upon failure, one can simply roll back or just discard that commit. Complete freedom and control.

Testability and debugging support on non-production Jenkins setup

Before mapping out all the detailed scripts and various packaging steps, create an overarching build pipeline template. Run it through and see that all the join jobs triggers the correct downstream jobs. This is essentially functionally testing and verification of the build pipeline itself. This template can of course be easily reused and so on. Furthermore, a Vagrantfile would help the developers create their own build server.

Tracking changes and rollback

By utilising Git, one would immediately gain the ability to track changes in the YAML files and rollback if needed. The content of the Git update-hook script is entirely up to you.


Write the YAML as templated as possible. Use parameters and variables supported by Jenkins Job Builder. Scaling out different variants of the same build pipeline should be as easy as defining a new “project” or “job-group” in Jenkins Job Builder.


If you have read this far, you must be wondering if this is all too good to be true. Answer is yes. However, since each build pipeline is very specific to the product and release processes, these samples from OpenStack is a great starting point.

Release management, part1: Test automation with Vagrant and Jenkins build pipeline

This blog post focusses on test automation and is one piece of a larger puzzle involving the craft that is release management.

“Real artists ship.” – Steve Jobs

The products discussed in this blog post is written in Java and Javascript. They are shipped as binaries and installed on premise via repositories. However, prior to building and potentially releasing these packages, test automation executed by the continuous integration (CI) server must pass. This this case, Jenkins. These tests include unit tests, integration tests, configuration tests, performance tests and acceptance tests.

Some of the tests are to be executed on complex setup and at times repeated on permutations varying configurations. Enter Vagrant. Vagrant is used heavily for creating virtualised environments that are cheap and can be easily reproduced. In addition, Vagrant enables the set up of complex network topologies that help facilitate specific test scenarios. The result is that tests are executed on freshly prepped environment and results are reproducible on Jenkins as it is on any developers’ machine.

This journey begins, like all other software journeys, on the drawing board. The problem was that despite having hundreds and thousands of regression tests, executing them independently upon new commits has proven to be tricky, let alone repeating the same test suite over different configurations. Lastly, static code analysis were only performed on developers’ personal setup.

A meeting was swiftly called in and plans for test automation was concocted.

where all ideas grow

where all ideas grow

The major flow of the test automation and build pipeline can be broken down into the following.

  1. src compile
  2. unit tests
  3. integration tests
  4. acceptance tests
  5. configuration tests
  6. performance tests
  7. preview
  8. demo
  9. release (manual step)

Note that each of the build step above is a “join” job, capable of triggering multiple downstream jobs. These downstream jobs can run in parallel, or lock resources on a single Jenkins node if needed. The join job can proceed onto the next join if and only if all triggered jobs are executed completely and successfully. For example, unit tests job will trigger multiple independent jobs for testing data access objects, RESTful APIs, frontend and various other components within the system. Jenkins will only move onwards to integration tests if all unit tests pass.

Installing and configuring Jenkins

This is a stock standard Jenkins setup, with the master compiling and unit testing the src. See the Vagrantfile below for full setup.

Required Jenkins Plugins

  • git plugin
  • build pipeline plugin
  • workspace cleanup plugin
  • envinject plugin
  • join trigger plugin
  • throttle concurrent builds plugin
  • copyartifact plugin
  • instant messaging plugin
  • irc plugin
  • build-timeout plugin

Note at the time of writing, build pipeline plugin had two bugs that made rendering the pipeline visual really unintelligible. fix was available here

Only global configuration are defined for Multi-Project Throttle Categories. This plugin is used as a locking mechanism for shared resources across Jenkins, see

Automated unit tests

Since Jenkin master will compile the source code, it was then decided to also run the unit tests. All test output are in JUnit format and Jenkins is capable of identifying failed tests and report them appropriately.

Recommendation: Ensuring that all tests can be executed with a single command line, and that test execution order, and setup must be idempotent. Docker can be considered at this point to improve test repeatability and scalability, and avoiding the old “works on Jenkins slaves/masters, but we have no idea what has been installed on it” excuse.

Automated integration tests

Similar to running unit tests, but on a setup closer to supported production environment. Vagrant is used extensively to setup and teardown fresh VMs for running these tests.

Recommendation: Making these tests run via a single command is highly recommend. This makes setup with Jenkins easy and reproducing failed test result on a developer’s setup more reliable. Note that these tests can take a while to set up since it involves installing 3rd party packages with apt-get or yum through Vagrant. At the time of writing, performing vagrant up in parallel has proven to be buggy. The throttle plugin is utlised to lock Vagrant as a single Jenkins resource. Note that depending on the test, it may be possible to use Docker instead of Vagrant. In addition, using AWS EC2 Vagrant plugin may provide access to additional resource to conduct these tests where needed.

Automated acceptance tests

At the time of writing, acceptance tests framework are being developed with Selenium and phantom.js. A mechanism to record user clicks and interactions then replaying them to verify the expected result is critical for this job.

Recommendation: Install packaged binaries on VM from intended repository where possible. This way the full installation process is tested (essentially testing the install guide). Furthermore, my view is that HAR output fits RESTful API testing. Selenium should not be ignored as it tests cross-browser support and provides a simple mechanism for recording user interactions.

Automated performance tests

At the time of writing, automated performance tests are not in place yet. However, my personal recommendation is to incorporate yslow and phantom.js into the build pipeline. See

Automated configuration tests

At the time of writing, different dependencies and configurations are being verified manually and not currently automated. It is highly recommended to do so. A provisioning tool such as Puppet, Chef, or Ansible that is capable of generating Vagrantfile based on supported configuration will help provision the environments for these tests. The same acceptance test suite should be repeated on each supported configuration to verify conformity.

Preview & Demo

Make available a freshly built Vagrant box with all dependencies and binaries installed. This is highly recommended of you have vendors or consultants, or just wish to pass on a demo box to prospects. It is also useful for guerrilla user testing.


Release is a manual step to avoid any mishaps. If it was a hosted service, this step should be automated and deployment should occur as new binaries pass through these gauntlet of tests.

Putting it all together

Only thing missing is automated resilience testing and testing for single point of failures. But for now, behold, a sea of green.

sea of green

sea of green

Vagrantfile to reproduce the Jenkins master

# -*- mode: ruby -*-
# vi: set ft=ruby :


Vagrant.configure(VAGRANTFILE_API_VERSION) do |config|
	config.vm.define :jenkins do |jenkins| = "jenkins"
		jenkins.vm.box_url = ""

        $script_jenkins = <<SCRIPT
echo ===== Installing tools, git, devscripts, debhelper, checkinstall, curl, rst2pdf, and unzip =====
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install git -y
sudo apt-get install unzip -y
sudo apt-get install devscripts -y
sudo apt-get install debhelper -y
sudo apt-get install checkinstall -y
sudo apt-get install curl -y
sudo apt-get install rst2pdf -y
echo ===== done ====
echo ===== installing ruby1.8 and gems =====
sudo apt-get install ruby1.8 -y
tar xvf rubygems-2.0.7.tgz
cd rubygems-2.0.7/
sudo checkinstall -y ruby setup.rb
echo ===== done ====
echo ===== Installing compass and zurb-foundation =====
sudo gem1.8 install compass
sudo gem1.8 install zurb-foundation
echo ===== done ====
echo ===== Installing compass and zurb-foundation =====
sudo apt-get install openjdk-7-jdk -y
sudo apt-get install ant -y
echo ===== done ====
echo ===== installing jenkins =====
cd ~
wget -q -O - | sudo apt-key add -
echo "deb binary/" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install jenkins -y
echo ===== done ====
echo ===== installing mongodb =====
sudo apt-get install mongodb -y
echo ===== done =====
echo ===== install nodejs and npm via nvm very hackish unless we fix it =====
curl | sh
source /root/.profile
nvm install v0.10.18
nvm use v0.10.18
npm -v
node -v
n=$(which node);n=${n%/bin/node}; chmod -R 755 $n/bin/*; sudo cp -r $n/{bin,lib,share} /usr/local
sudo -s which node
echo ===== done =====
echo ===== Installing grunt-cli =====
sudo npm install -g grunt-cli
echo ===== done ====
echo ===== virtualbox and vagrant =====
cd ~
sudo apt-get install virtualbox
sudo dpkg -i vagrant_1.3.3_x86_64.deb
echo ===== done =====
echo ===== install jenkins-jobs ===
cd ~
git clone
cd jenkins-job-builder/
sudo python install
echo ===== done =====

		jenkins.vm.provision :shell, :inline => $script_jenkins "forwarded_port", guest: 8080, host:38080